Summer Research Highlight

Next up for summer highlights is Tayla Isensee, a rising Junior at Reed who is splitting her research time on computational and experimental sides of the same project -searching for targets of Retinoic Acid (RA) signaling in zebrafish retinal development.  This is a joint project with Kara Cerveny, whose work produces beautiful images of the zebrafish eye (images from her website):

In this project we’re going back to bioinformatics with motif-finding – read Tayla’s post for more info:

Retinoic Acid, Development, and Motif Finding

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Summer Research Highlight

Seven fantastic undergrads & recent-grads are working with me this summer, and we’ve already made a ton of progress.  We have a separate student blog, The Pathway Not Taken, which was established as part of a Computing Research Association Collaborative REU grant (I hope that program comes back, it was great).

First up is Amy Rose Lazarte, who just graduated from Reed. Before heading to Puppet Labs as a software engineer, she’s working to build models of phytoplankton fitness in freshwater lakes.  Read her post for more info:

Ecology Modeling: Thermal Variation and Phytoplankton Fitness

(If you want to learn a bit about all projects, read my summer kickstarter post).

Sabbatical Part 8

It’s summer, and faculty have submitted their grades, attended their last faculty meeting, and have gleefully moved on to full-time summer research.  Faculty on sabbatical have a few more precious months to wrap up the year’s worth of research projects before returning to teaching.  Sabbatical is not over, but the end is in sight.

The last few weeks were a whirlwind of meetings – first to Memphis, TN to the NCWIT Summit, where I received an Undergraduate Research Mentoring award.  I ate some hot chicken, saw the Grand Ole Opry, and did some novice line dancing.

summitemail_messagingsmcard

I then flew to Madison, WI for the Great Lakes Bioinformatics conference.  It was a great meeting – the talks presented new and innovative ideas in bioinformatics and computational biology.  I gave two talks — a research talk on hypergraph connectivity measures for signaling pathway analysis and an education talk on undergraduate engagement in computational biology through conference attendance.  Materials related to these talks will be posted on my website in the next few weeks.

Madison and the University’s campus has changed a lot since I was a kid, but I was excited to introduce the Great Dane Pub to some folks.  I also probably talked about cheese curds more than I should have.  I also caught up with other liberal arts computational biology faculty: Layla Oesper from Carleton, Catie Welsh from Rhodes, and Getiria Onsongo from Macalester.  Undergraduate institutions in the midwest are certainly stepping up their computational biology game!

Summer research is now in full swing, with three students and two post-bacs working on a bunch of different projects.  I’ve also taken advantage of the outstanding (dry!) Portland weather to get back into playing ultimate frisbee – my last sabbatical goal is to not get (too) injured.

 

Sabbatical Part 7

Preprints and Pasta

I have finally joined the preprint bandwagon (which is embarrassingly late, given how much I am in support of open science).  Here are four recent preprints that are finally free to the public.  Congratulations and thanks go to the four other PIs, one postdoc, one grad student, and six undergraduates who contributed to these papers.

Integrating Protein Localization with Automated Signaling Pathway Reconstruction
Ibrahim Youssef, Jeffrey Law, Anna Ritz
Full version of BIBM 2018 conference paper, under review
Big Question: When we hunt for protein interactions that are potentially involved in cellular signaling responses, can we use information about where the proteins are localized in the cell?
Short Answer: Yep.  We modify an existing algorithm to find paths within large protein protein interaction networks that respect where we expect proteins to be expressed in the cell.

Distance Measures for Tumor Evolutionary Trees
Zach DiNardo, Kiran Tomlinson, Anna Ritz, and Layla Oesper
RECOMB-CCB 2019 conference paper
Big Question: Suppose we have two “options” for how an individual’s tumor has evolved, in terms of the order of acquired mutations.  How should we compare these options?
Short Answer: We need to compare both the grouping (labeling) and the relative order of acquired mutations in evolutionary time – our distances account for these features.

Connectivity Measures for Signaling Pathway Topologies
Nicholas Franzese, Adam Groce, T. M. Murali, and Anna Ritz
GLBio 2019 conference paper
Big Question:Signaling pathways are inherently more complicated than their graph representations, and many other representations have been proposed to capture the complexity of signaling pathway topologies (e.g. compound graphs, bipartite graphs, and hypergraphs).  In these representations, what does it mean for two molecules to be “connected,” and is connectivity a useful measure?
Short Answer: We show that “connectivity” highly depends on the data representation, and we propose a parameterized measure that switches from connectivity in graphs to connectivity in hypergraphs.  This measure can capture the “influence” of one signaling pathway on another better than other connectivity measures.

Improved Differentially Private Analysis of Variance
PETS 2019 conference paper
Marika Swanberg, Ira Globus-Harris, Iris Griffith, Anna Ritz, Adam Groce, Andrew Bray
Big Question: The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistic is heavily used in contexts where user privacy is imperative (biomedicine, sociology, and business).  We already developed an algorithm with differential privacy guarantees on datasets of a certain size – can we improve the method so we get this guarantee with fewer data points?
Short Answer: Yep.  In fact, we define variants of the ANOVA statistic with good differential privacy guarantees.

…and the pasta. In non-work-related news, I just returned from a family vacation in Italy! We saw great architecture and art (in addition to the pasta, wine, and gelato), walking about 10 miles a day on cobblestones.

The History of Science Museum (Museo Galileo) in Florence was fantastic, displaying scientific instruments big and small.

 

Finally, good luck Reed thesis students as they wrap up their senior theses!  Only a few short weeks until Renn Fayre….

Sabbatical Part 5

The winter edition:  posters, presentations, and pastries

Yes, you read that right.  First, though, thanks to Romel Hernandez and Reed’s Public Affairs staff for the article on my NSF CAREER award!

Posters2018-thompson-taylor_brill-cancerlinker

four Reed students and alums presented posters on their recent work.  See some of these posters and others on the updated posters page on my website.

  • Current students Sol Taylor-Brill and Kathy Thompson presented their work on CancerLinker – a method to integrate gene expression data from cancer patients in signaling pathway analysis.  They gave a poster at the 2018 Murdock College Science Research Conference in Vancouver, WA.
  • Current student Mattie O’Kelley-Bangsberg presented work from Derek Applewhite’s and my collaboration to find potential regulators of non-muscle myosin II, a protein known to be involved in cellular constriction.  This project involved students from two upper-level biology courses, contributing to both the computational predictions and the experimental validations.  She presented a poster at ASCB/EMBO in San Diego, CA; you can read more in the list of poster abstracts (P3219).
  • Post-baccalaureate Amy Platenkamp presented her work in Derek Applewhite’s lab investigating the regulatory role of the RN-tre protein in non-muscle myosin II’s localization and function.  She also presented a poster at ASCB/EMBO in San Diego, P1104 in the list of poster abstracts.

Presentationsinvalid-paths

I gave a talk at BIBM 2018 on my postdoc’s work that integrates protein localization information in signaling pathway analysis.  Our previous work computed many short paths within a protein-protein interaction network to automatically reconstruct a signaling pathway of interest. While this worked better than other methods, we found that some of the paths were not starting at the membrane of the cell and ending in the nucleus — an assumption we impose on intracellular signaling pathways.  In this paper, we show that constraining the paths with proteins that are in the expected place in the cell produces more accurate pathway reconstructions.

Also, Carleton student Kiran Tomlinson gave an excellent talk on his work with CS professor Layla Oesper on the effect of noise in tumor evolution reconstructions.

Pastries

BIBM 2018 was in Madrid, which was a fantastic place to visit over Spain’s Constitution Day.  The food was amazing – the baked clams at the oldest continuously-operating restaurant in the world, paella Thursday, and the grilled octopus were top-notch.  Then there were the pastries (photos from Mercado de San Miguel):

An adventure to El Escorial also led us to the local chocolate bizcotelas (photo from this blog post, which includes the recipe):

This trip was sabbatical-approved.

Sabbatical Part 4

This fall has has been filled with meetings of all types:

Meeting 1: Pacific Northwest Quantitative Biology (PacNow QB) Meeting
Who: Organized by yours truly and Derek Applewhite.
What: Regional meeting for faculty, researchers, and students interest in quantitative, data-driven biology.
Where: Hosted at Lewis & Clark College (thanks Clarkies!).
When: September 22
Interested? The meeting has been held annually, and includes a student poster session and faculty/researcher invited talks.

Meeting 2: Computational Biology Workshop
Who: Organized by kick-ass computer scientist Layla Oesper.
What: Undergraduate workshop that brought together faculty from five liberal arts institutions to introduce computer science students to applications in biology.
Where: Hosted at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota (proudly known as the city of “Cows, Colleges, and Contentment”).
When: September 29-30
Interested? No immediate plans for a future workshop of this type, but all the materials are freely available online.

Meeting 3: Consortium for Computing Sciences in Colleges (CCSC-NW) Regional Meeting
Who: Organized by Kelvin Sung and others, including pretty fantastic women in CS: Tammy VanDeGrift, Haiyan Cheng, and Shereen Khoja.
What: Regional meeting for computer science educators at colleges in the Pacific Northwest, with a focus on CS education.
Where: Hosted at University of Washington, Bothell.
When: October 12-13
Interested? This was my first time and I loved meeting new colleagues.  CCSC-NW is usually held in early October every year, and will be held in the Portland area next year.

And then there’s the crazy beautiful weather here in Portland – fantastic view of St. John’s Bridge in North Portland during a hike in Forest Park:

20181014_102423

Time-to-parity for women publishing in STEM fields

A recent paper by Holman et al. in PLOS Biology presents a new look at the gender gap in publications for millions of authors from over one hundred countries in over six thousand journals.  You can interact with the data through their  web app.

The gender gap in science: How long until women are equally represented?
Luke Holman, Devi Stuart-Fox, Cindy E. Hauser, PLOS Biology 2018.

The authors present the current author gender ratio, its rate of change per year, and the estimate number of years until the gender ratio comes with 5% of parity.  A few notes below the image…

Here are the first things I noticed:

  1. The estimated percent of women authors “maxes out” at 50% (there’s a Figure 2 that includes fields with a higher percentage of women).
  2. arXiv.org – the preprint server that began as a mathematics and physics venue – has particularly poor percent of women authors.
  3. First author percentages tend to be “ahead of the curve” for each discipline, while last authors lag behind the numbers for all authors.  In many fields, first authors denote who did the most work, and last authors denote who funded the work.  My hunch is that a higher proportion of women get papers as graduate students and postdocs, whereas fewer women make it to senior-level faculty as heads of a lab.
  4. On a positive note, more women are publishing in the fields than before (the rate of change is mostly positive).

The paper’s supplementary figure S3 shows data for Computer Science (from arXiv).  Based on current trajectories, only two sub-categories (Information Theory and Robotics) hope to see gender parity within the next 50-100 years.  We still have a long way to go.