Quantifying the gender bias in federally-funded STEM research

We all know that there is a gender disparity in STEM fields.  Is it harder for women in these fields to obtain federal funding compared to their male colleagues?  In 2013, Helen Chen published an article in Nature summarizing women’s continual challenges in science.    The infographic below from the paper describes the gap in NIH-funded research grants.

from Inequality quantified: Mind the gender gap by Helen Chen, Nature Vol 595 Issue 7439 2013.

At first glance, the funding gap looks appalling – only 30% of the NIH’s grants are going to women!  However, there’s a missing ingredient here:  the fraction of NIH grant proposals submitted by women.  To get this information, let’s go back to 2008 for a minute.  Jennifer Pohlhaus and others at the NIH assessed the gender differences in application rates and success rates for 77% of the awards submitted in 2008, including training grants, midcareer grants, independent research grants (e.g., R01), and senior grants.  They found that the acceptance rates reflected the application rates for most NIH grants.  however, men had a higher success rate once they had received their first NIH grant and become NIH investigators.  So the funding gap in the infographic may not be tied to women having lower success rates in funding, but rather that fewer women are submitting grants.  A visualization of the data from the NIH is available on their webpage.

The Nature article (and many many other articles) point to the fact that women tend to leave science early in their education and careers.  In the 2008 NIH grant applications there were more female applicants than male applicants for three of the early career / training awards (F31, K01, K23), and two other early career awards (F30 and F32) showed no statistical difference between the number of male and female applicants.  However, male applicants significantly outnumbered female applicants in all midcareer, independent research, and senior career programs.

An evaluation of gender bias is currently underway for six other federal agencies: NSF, DOD, DOE, USDA, HHS, and NASA.  The audit, conducted by the Government Accountability Office (GAO), will first release a report that investigates whether the agencies evaluate proposals based on potentially biased measures.  The GAO will then release a second report identifying potential factors that lead to the disparity in funding between men and women.  Once out, it will be an interesting read…

Slaughter Announces GAO Audit on Gender Discrimination in Federal STEM Research Funding | Congresswoman Louise Slaughter.

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